What is Linux?
Linux is a free, open source operating system created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. It is based on the Unix operating system and is one of the most widely used systems in the world.
While it was first developed by programmers, Linux has benefited from the community’s input over the years and is now available to all. It is a free, open-source platform and has been widely adopted by IT professionals who value productivity, efficiency, security, power, speed, and self-reliance.
The Linux kernel runs on many different types of hardware, including laptops, desktops, servers, routers and other devices with a microprocessor. It is compatible with a variety of architectures, including x86, PowerPC, Intel and AMD.
It is often used as a server OS, though it can also be used as a client OS on thin clients such as Raspberry Pi single-card computers and Google Chromebooks. It is a great choice for small businesses, universities and governments that need to deploy their computing resources on a limited budget.
A Linux distribution is a collection of software packages that are packaged together in order to run on a particular computer. Most distributions are built around the Linux kernel, but some distributions include a variety of proprietary software, such as device drivers from computer manufacturers, to support specific hardware configurations.
Most Linux distributions are based on the GNU GPL license, which encourages free software development and allows users to modify and distribute the code. However, many commercial vendors offer specialized versions of Linux for business use, which usually have a corresponding fee for support.
When a system is booted, the Linux kernel is loaded and starts up a set of processes that control how programs request services from the rest of the system. The kernel also sets up the file system and initializes memory, among other things.
Some distributions have a graphical user interface, or GUI, that allows the user to interact with the system. The user can click icons or navigate through pull-down menus to manage files, access programs and other resources.
The command line interface, or CLI, is another way to interact with a Linux system. Most Linux distributions support CLI shells, such as the Bourne-Again Shell (bash) that was originally developed by the GNU project. The CLI is most useful for automated, repetitive tasks that require simple inter-process communication.
In addition to the CLI, Linux supports a number of command-line utilities and scripting languages for programming. Most distributions are able to compile and run a wide range of interpreted, scripting languages such as Perl, Python, PHP, Ruby, Java and more.
These languages can be very powerful tools and allow you to create a lot of custom programs, as well as automate a large amount of processes. They can also save you time and effort, especially when you are working on a big project or have many projects to complete.
Because Linux is so free and open source, it has gained a huge following of developers who are passionate about their work. These developers make up the core of the Linux community and are constantly developing and improving the Linux operating system. The Linux community is also responsible for a variety of popular open source applications and utilities, such as Git for distributed source control, vim and emacs for text editing and compilers and interpreters for most programming languages.